Coherence provides the ideal infrastructure for building Data Grid services, as well as the client and server-based applications that utilize a Data Grid. At a basic level, Coherence can manage an immense amount of data across a large number of servers in a grid; it can provide close to zero latency access for that data; it supports parallel queries across that data; and it supports integration with database and EIS systems that act as the system of record for that data. For more information on the infrastructure for the Data Grid features in Coherence, refer to the discussion on Data Fabric capabilities. Additionally, Coherence provides a number of services that are ideal for building effective data grids.
|All of the Data Grid capabilities described below are features of the Coherence Enterprise Edition.|
Coherence provides for the ability to execute an agent against an entry in any map of data managed by the Data Grid:
In the case of partitioned data, the agent executes on the grid node that owns the data to execute against. This means that the queueing, concurrency management, agent execution, data access by the agent and data modification by the agent all occur on that grid node. (Only the synchronous backup of the resultant data modification, if any, requires additional network traffic.) For many processing purposes, it is much more efficient to move the serialized form of the agent (usually only a few hundred bytes, at most) than to handle distributed concurrency control, coherency and data updates.
For request/response processing, the agent returns a result:
In other words, Coherence as a Data Grid will determine the location to execute the agent based on the configuration for the data topology, move the agent there, execute the agent (automatically handling concurrency control for the item while executing the agent), back up the modifications if any, and return a result.
Coherence additionally provides for the ability to execute an agent against an entire collection of entries. In a partitioned Data Grid, the execution occurs in parallel, meaning that the more nodes that are in the grid, the broader the work is load-balanced across the Data Grid:
For request/response processing, the agent returns one result for each key processed:
In other words, Coherence determines the optimal location(s) to execute the agent based on the configuration for the data topology, moves the agent there, executes the agent (automatically handling concurrency control for the item(s) while executing the agent), backing up the modifications if any, and returning the coalesced results.
As discussed in the queryable data fabric topic, Coherence supports the ability to query across the entire data grid. For example, in a trading system it is possible to query for all open "Order" objects for a particular trader:
By combining this feature with Parallel Execution in the data grid, Coherence provides for the ability to execute an agent against a query. As in the previous section, the execution occurs in parallel, and instead of returning the identities or entries that match the query, Coherence executes the agents against the entries:
For request/response processing, the agent returns one result for each key processed:
In other words, Coherence combines its Parallel Query and its Parallel Execution together to achieve query-based agent invocation against a Data Grid.
Passing an instance of AlwaysFilter (or a null) to the invokeAll method will cause the passed agent to be executed against all entries in the InvocableMap:
As with the other types of agent invocation, request/response processing is supported:
In other words, with a single line of code, an application can process all the data spread across a particular map in the Data Grid.
Agents for Targeted, Parallel and Query-Based Execution
An agent implements the EntryProcessor interface, typically by extending the AbstractProcessor class.
A number of agents are included with Coherence, including:
- AbstractProcessor - an abstract base class for building an EntryProcessor
- ExtractorProcessor - extracts and returns a specific value (such as a property value) from an object stored in an InvocableMap
- CompositeProcessor - bundles together a collection of EntryProcessor objects that are invoked sequentially against the same Entry
- ConditionalProcessor - conditionally invokes an EntryProcessor if a Filter against the Entry-to-process evaluates to true
- PropertyProcessor - an abstract base class for EntryProcessor implementations that depend on a PropertyManipulator
- NumberIncrementor - pre- or post-increments any property of a primitive integral type, as well as Byte, Short, Integer, Long, Float, Double, BigInteger, BigDecimal
- NumberMultiplier - multiplies any property of a primitive integral type, as well as Byte, Short, Integer, Long, Float, Double, BigInteger, BigDecimal, and returns either the previous or new value
The EntryProcessor interface (contained within the InvocableMap interface) contains only two methods:
(The AbstractProcessor implements the processAll method as described in the JavaDoc above.)
The InvocableMap.Entry that is passed to an EntryProcessor is an extension of the Map.Entry interface that allows an EntryProcessor implementation to obtain the necessary information about the entry and to make the necessary modifications in the most efficient manner possible:
Data Grid Aggregation
While the above agent discussion correspond to scalar agents, the InvocableMap interface also supports aggregation:
A simple EntryAggregator processes a set of InvocableMap.Entry objects to achieve a result:
For efficient execution in a Data Grid, an aggregation process must be designed to operate in a parallel manner.
Coherence comes with all of the natural aggregation functions, including:
|All aggregators that come with Coherence are parallel-aware.|
See the com.tangosol.util.aggregator package for a list of Coherence aggregators. To implement your own aggregator, see the AbstractAggregator abstract base class.
Coherence provides an Invocation Service which allows execution of single-pass agents (called Invocable objects) anywhere within the grid. The agents can be executed on any particular node of the grid, in parallel on any particular set of nodes in the grid, or in parallel on all nodes of the grid.
An invocation service is configured using the invocation-scheme element in the cache configuration file. Using the name of the service, the application can easily obtain a reference to the service:
Agents are simply runnable classes that are part of the application. The simplest example is a simple agent that is designed to request a GC from the JVM:
To execute that agent across the entire cluster, it takes one line of code:
Here is an example of an agent that supports a grid-wide request/response model:
To execute that agent across the entire grid and retrieve all the results from it, it still takes only one line of code:
While it is easy to do a grid-wide request/response, it takes a bit more code to print out the results:
The agent operations can be stateful, which means that their invocation state is serialized and transmitted to the grid nodes on which the agent is to be run.
Coherence provides a grid-enabled implementation of the IBM and BEA CommonJ Work Manager, which is the basis for JSR-237. Once JSR-237 is complete, Tangosol has committed to support the standardized J2EE API for Work Manager as well.
Using a Work Manager, an application can submit a collection of work that needs to be executed. The Work Manager distributes that work in such a way that it is executed in parallel, typically across the grid. In other words, if there are ten work items submitted and ten servers in the grid, then each server will likely process one work item. Further, the distribution of work items across the grid can be tailored, so that certain servers (e.g. one that acts as a gateway to a particular mainframe service) will be the first choice to run certain work items, for sake of efficiency and locality of data.
The application can then wait for the work to be completed, and can provide a timeout for how long it is willing to wait. The API for this purpose is quite powerful, allowing an application to wait for the first work item to complete, or for a specified set of the work items to complete. By combining methods from this API, it is possible to do things like "Here are 10 items to execute; for these 7 unimportant items, wait no more than 5 seconds, and for these 3 important items, wait no more than 30 seconds":
Of course, the best descriptions come from real-world production usage:
Our primary use case for the Work Manager is to allow our application to serve coarse-grained service requests using our blade infrastructure in a standards-based way. We often have what appears to be a simple request, like "give me this family's information." In reality, however, this request expands into a large number of requests to several diverse back-end data sources consisting of web services, RDMBS calls, etc. This use case expands into two different but related problems that we are looking to the distributed version of the work manager to solve.
1. How do we take a coarse-grained request that expands into several fine-grained requests and execute them in parallel to avoid blocking the caller for an unreasonable time? In the above example, we may have to make upwards of 100 calls to various places to retrieve the information. Since J2EE has no legal threading model, and since the threading we observed when trying a message-based approach to this was unacceptable, we decided to use the Coherence Work Manager implementation.
2. Given that we want to make many external system calls in parallel while still leveraging low-cost blades, we are hoping that fanning the required work across many dual processor (logically 4-processor because of hyperthreading) machines allows us to scale an inherently vertical scalability problem with horizontal scalability at the hardware level. We think this is reasonable because the cost to marshall the request to a remote Work Manager instance is small compared to the cost to execute the service, which usually involves dozens or hundreds of milliseconds.
For more information on the Work Manager Specification and API, see Timer and Work Manager for Application Servers on the BEA dev2dev web site and JSR 237.
Coherence provides an extensive set of capabilities that make Data Grid services simple, seamless and seriously scalable. While the data fabric provides an entire unified view of the complete data domain, the Data Grid features enable applications to take advantage of the partitioning of data that Coherence provides in a scale-out environment.